Renaissance Bronze Drinking Vessels In The S. M. & T. Collection: “From Which To Drink” – DEC. 2014

BRONZE. BRASS AND COPPER FROM THE RENIASSANCE THROUGH THE 1600’S

PRESENTLY WITHIN SMITH’S MUSEUM  AND TAVERN’S COLLECTION  “FROM WHICH TO DRINK”

VERY DRAFT  @ 11-23 -2014 & 12=11=14

 

THIS PAGE WAS ORIGINALLY DESIGNED FOR A TABLE DISPLAY PRESENTATION (HENCE IT WAS PRINTED WITH ALL CAITAL LETTERS )…. AND LATER THAT DAY  TALK AT YORK PENNSZYLVANIA  IN NOVEMEBER OF 2014.

THE OCCASSION WAS A JOINT MEETING OF  TWO  SCI CHAPTERS , THE PENNSLVANIA KEYSTEINERS (PA, NJ , AND DEL.)AND THE GAMBRINUS STEIN (COLLECTORS) CLUB. (OF VA., MD.,DC., AND DEL.

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$- 1 - bronze wine -  water server  NOW MINE FROM GERMANY  Inv. no. xxxx - 3224-1014

 [1] DOUBLE SPOUTED WATER AND  / OR WINE KETTLE –  BRONZE – CIRCA 1400 – 1500.

 WHILE THESE ARE CALLED “WASSERKANNS” (GERMAN  FOR WATER CAN) )  THEY WERE USED ALL OVER EUROPE AND WHEN THE WEATHER WAS COLD (MOST OF THE TIME) THEY COULD BE USED TO WARM UP WINE WHEN FRIENDS CAME TO VISIT. 

IN  BRONZE NOTHING  iS  EASY TO MAKE , SO THESE BRONZE ITEMS SHOWN WERE MOSTLY BOUGHT BY THE UPPER CLASS;  THEREFORE THERE ARE NOT MANY TO BE FOUND!

“SMITH’S MUSEUM AND TAVERN” IS LUCKY TO HAVE ACQUIRDED THREE IN THE MANY, MANY YEARS OF LOOKING SINCE FIRST SEEING AN OIL PAINTING OF ONE AT “THE CLOSITERS” MUSEUM (MMA) IN NEW YORK CITY.

PLEASE SEE PHOTO OF THE CLOSISTER’S TRIPTYCH AND DETAIL  ▼  ▼ 

 

photo missing  = word press strikes again !

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1 - 1 UNUSUAL BRONZE SINGLE SPOUT  WATER  -  WINE SERVER VA 1200-  1400'S   REF...GERMAN BOOK  'MESSING '  INV. NO.  XXXX- 2451 -- 9-2014

[2] SINGLE SPOUTED WATER-WINE KETTLE – BRONZE – CIRCA 1300 – 1500.

 A “WASSERKANN” WITH A SINGLE SPOUT AND HANDLE; MUCH DIFFERENT IN CONSTRUCTION FROM THE DOUBLE SPOUTED ONES! THIS ONE BEARS A HAND ENGRAVED HEBREW INSCRIPTION INDICATING THAT IT WAS ORIGINALLY USED WITHIN A UPPER CLASS JEWISH HOUSHOLD AS A HAND WASHING VESSEL.

LATER OF COURSE LIKE ITS BIGGER COUSIN SHOWN JUST ABOVE , IT MAY HAVE BEEN USED TO HEAT OTHER LIQUIDS SUCH AS WINE WHEN GUESTS WERE PRESENT.  BRONZE KETTLES WITH ONE SPOUT ARE EXTREMELY RARE!  THE ONLY ONE CLOSE TO IT  THAT I HAVE SEEN IS REFERENCED IN THE BOOK “BRASS’”(V & A MUSEUM, LONDON.) THEREFORE THERE ARE VERY FEW TO BE FOUND!

 “SMITH’S MUSEUM AND TAVERN” IS VERY LUCKY TO HAVE ACQUIRDED AN EXAMPLE THIS YEAR [2014]  AT A NOMINAL COST.

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JUG - BRASS - WINE SERVER  DATED [16]76  LUBECK MARK  COST WAS $150  TOTAL -2

[3]  BRASS WINE SERVER / JUG – STAMPED DATE MARK 16 [76] “ PROBABLY MADE AROUND  THE NETHERLANDS

THIS 13 INCH TALL, HAND HAMMERED BRASS JUG HAS THE STAMPED MAKER’S MARK  “R S”. ON THE NECK AS WELL AS THE TRADE GUILD’S MARK [LOGO].  WELL USED.  BUT LOVINGLY REPAIRED, WITH ITS ORIGINAL LID MISSING.

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JUG - BRASS - WINE SERVER  DATED [16]76 --LIKE IT  ON PAINTING  BY Hermann Knopf (Wien 1870 - München 1928), Holländerin mit Krug,

VERY SIMILIAR PIECE SHOWN IN ART WORK OF THE TIME

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1 - BRONZE -MORTAR  CA 1400  FR N. ITALY OR AUST-HUNGARY  -  6 INCHES TALL  INV. NO XXXX - 0320 --   CIRCA 1200 TO 1400'S  EBAY  9-2014

[4] AN EXTREMELY LARGE ‘BRONZE’ MORTAR USED FOR CRUSHING AND MIXING SPICES, BERRIES AND FRUIT FOR MULLED WINE ….SOUTHERN AUSTRIA, OR NORTHERN ITALY** CIRCA 12OO-1400.

Spiced or mulled wine was not only popular among the affluent, but was also considered especially healthy by physicians. Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome.

Spiced wines and wine punch (“punsch”. Germ.) were usually made by mixing an ordinary (red) wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger root, cardamom, regular pepper, AND “grains of paradise” nutmeg, and sugar. (Nutmeg and cloves were usually used in powdered form). And of course added juice or skin (or both) from blueberries, gooseberries. blackberries, raspberries, currants, wild strawberries,  and don’t forget the honey!

Given the size and weight and original cost to produce this example, it was not your everyday household mortar and  it well may have been made fo a “semi- royal” household, or a very wealthy, top-of-the line-merchant. I have no idea why the handles are so elongated, except “ artistic license” at play.

  **Source: Messing” by Herr. Hermann P Lockner

 


 

 

 

$- A - Renaissance BRONZE  DOUBLE HANDLED JUG   PASS CUP [Q] handle is typical forr the period

[5 ]-  [6] TWO SIZES OF DUAL HANDLED BRONZE  PASS CUPS OR DRINKING BOWLS  – CIRCA 1400-1600’S

1 - MY SECOND BRONZE  DOUBLE HANDLED BOWL  PASS CUP FUBARED SURFACE - gouges due to file.BOW UP TO SEE   COST $147.00 -- 9-2014 THIS PHOTO WAS EBAY AD.

THESE [2] MADE FROM ESENTIALLY THE SAME DESIGN  WITH THE SAME OUTWARD TURNING LIP AS THE BRONZE WATER-WINE KETTLES FROM THIS TIME PERIOD. [SEE NO. 1 ▲] THESE BOWLS WERE USED IN WEALTHY HOUSEHOLDS TO DRINK (SLURP)  WHAT WE NOW WOULD CALL SUCH WARMED THICK DRINKS AS WASSAIL, WINE PUNCH, OR MEAD. THIS LIQUID [WAS USUALLY SOME COMBINATION OF LOCAL WINE AND FRUITS AND OTHER SWEETENERS SUCH AS HONEY, SERVED VERY HOT OFF THE FIRE PLACE GRATE OR HEARTH.

SOMETIMES THEY WOULD USE THESE FOR “GRUEL” ( A TYPE OF LIQUID FOOD CONSISTING OF SOME CEREAL FLOUR OR RICE BOILED IN WATER OR MILK  THAT WAS FEED TO THE RICH ELDERLY AND SICK;  AS WELL AS THE PEASANTS OF THE TIME. THE SMALLEST OF THE TWO IS BEING HAND RESTORED BY HIMSELF  (A LONG AND SLOW PROCESS AS SOME NITWIT IN ITS PAST TRIED TO CLEAN IT ALL OVER WITH A METAL FILE! )

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SOS - SMALL BRONZE  MUG - PROBABLY 15 - 1600'S

[7] INDIVIDUAL BRONZE WINE SERVER   WESTERN  EUROPE  –  CIRCA 1500.

 A 5 ½ INCH TALL BRONZE WINE SERVER TO BE PLACED NEXT TO A DINNER GUEST TO REFRESHER HIS / HER WINE WHEN NEEDED. IN GERMANY AND ITS SURROUNDS,

EXCEPT FOR THE ADDITION OF A SMALL BASE ADDED FOR STABILITY, THIS STYLE STAYED RELATIVELY THE SAME FOR THE NEXT 500 YEARS!  THIS IS WITNESSED BY THE TWO WESTERWALD STONEWARE PITCHERS SHOWN  HERE WITH IT ~~ ONE FOR PRIVATE USE, ONE COMMERCIAL USE AT THE BREMEN RATSKELLER WHICH IS NORMALLY THOUGHT OF AS ONLY A “BIER KELLER.”

ON IT THE BABY BACCHUS ASSUMES THE “SITTING-ON-BARREL-POSITION” USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE KING OF BEERS:  “GAMBRIUS.”

 NEED PHOTOS

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[8]  [1] COPPER WITH LIGHTLY ENGRAVED BRASS DESIGN VODKA BEAKER RUSSIAN, (PROBABLY NOVGOROD)  CIRCA:  1200-1400

A THREE INCH HAMMERED COPPER BEAKER  (FOR A VODKA SHOT) WITH APPLIED, ENGRAVED  BRASS DECORATION.

THIS LITTLE BEAKER HAS STRONG “VARANGIAN” INFLUENCE ON THE DESIGN , NOVGOROD HAVING BEEN SETTLED BY THIS BRANCH OF THE  EARLY SCANDINAVIN VIKINGS.  THIS CITY WAS THE SECOND LARGEST IN POPULATION DURING THIS TIME AND BEING ON THE VOLGA RIVER , THE BIGGEST IN TRADE.  

 

 

 [9] COPPER DRINKING MUG   ENRICHED WITH TIN  NOT SILVER    CIRCA LATE 1600’S -1700’S OTTOMAN EMPIRE [1453 TO 1918 / 1922

 

OTTOMAN COPPER MUGS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THOSE MADE IN OTHER AREAS OF THE MID EASTERN WORLD BY THEIR USE OF [1] A FLATENED HANDLE BOTTOM, CURVED WITH, AND ATTACHED TO THE  BODY. [2] THE BODY MOST OFTEN HAS SHINY TIN APPLIED ON THE OUTSIDE OF IT LOOKING LIKE IT WAS APPLIED AT RANDOM;  SOMETIMES IN STREAKS. [3] THEIR CONSISTENT USE OF AN ATTACHED HANDLE RIVETED THROUGH A SMALL PLINTH MOLDEDAND APPEARING TO LOOK  LIKE  SMALL DRAGON FLY’S WINGS.

THIS PIECE HAS BEEN HEAILY REPAIRED DURING ITS LIFETIME  – REMEMBER – BACK THEN THERE WAS NO “IT’S OLD! THROW IT AWAY! ”  OR  “WE WISH TO LIVE IN PLASTICVILLE” MENTALITY!

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1 - RENAISSANCE BRONZE MUG   probably  later and stained   I BOUGHT 8-2014 for $155.00  GOT SCREWED

 

 [10]  SMALL BRONZE WINE PITCHE  ENGLISH – CIRCA 1500’S [A REPRODUCTION]

AS WITH ANY GOOD COLLECTABLE THAT BECOMES EXPENSIVE TO OWN, SOMEONE OUT THERE HAS TO MAKE A REPRODUCTION.

THIS ONE WAS SOLD ON EBAY WITH NO MENTION THAT IT WAS FAKE.  AFTER I GOT IT, IT BECAME APPARENT THAT IT WAS BOGUS WHEN I WENT TO CLEAN IT. SOMEONE HAD COATED IT WITH AN ASIDIC) AGING SOLUTION; THIS IS MOST OFTEN FOUND ON PEWTER BUT THEY {?) MAKE THESE STAINING CHEMICALS FOR MOST ANY METAL NOW.

 IT IS VERY HARD IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO REMOVE 100% OF THE STAIN.

STEVE CLEANED AND POISHED THIS PIECE OFF AND ON FOR ABOUT A WEEK. IT IS STILL MUCH DARKER ALL OVER THAN IT SHOULD BE AND THERE ARE STILL LOTS OF SMALL, DARKER SPOTS ON THE SURFACE THAT JUST WILL NOT DISAPPEAR.

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 [11] COPPER DRINKING MUG   ENRICHED WITH TIN  NOT SILVER    CIRCA LATE 1600’S -1700’S OTTOMAN EMPIRE [1453 TO 1918 / 1922

 OTTOMAN COPPER MUGS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THOSE MADE IN OTHER AREAS OF THE MID EASTERN WORLD BY THEIR USE OF [1] A FLATENED HANDLE BOTTOM, CURVED WITH, AND ATTACHED TO THE  BODY. [2] THE BODY MOST OFTEN HAS SHINY TIN APPLIED ON THE OUTSIDE OF IT LOOKING LIKE IT WAS APPLIED AT RANDOM;  SOMETIMES IN STREAKS. [3] THEIR CONSISTENT USE OF AN ATTACHED HANDLE RIVETED THROUGH A SMALL PLINTH MOLDED AND APPEARING TO LOOK  LIKE SMALL DRAGON FLY’S WINGS.

THIS PIECE HAS BEEN HEAILY REPAIRED DURING ITS LIFETIME  – REMEMBER – BACK THEN THERE WAS NO “IT’S OLD! THROW IT AWAY! ” OR “WE WISH TO LIVE IN PLASTICVILLE” MENTALITY!

[12]

TWO CA. 1600’S EXAMPLES OF HAND HAMMERED COPPER HANGING POTS — CENTAL EUROPE

(PRODUCED IN THE LATE 1400’S AND USED

THROUGH THE 1700’S, LONGER IN SOME PLACES)

$- Kupferkanne 17. Jhrt. Italien -Toskana-Venetien

 

Hanging pots go back in time before Christ. In Europe by the 1400’s they were being made in the style of the Bronze one shown on the photocopy placed besides these pages.

As bronze was so expensive because of the labor to make zinc, and only the very wealthy could afford it, tinned copper was soon used in its stead with the basic pot design continued including the flared out lip (which there was really no reason for except style, as it spilled as readily as those without it.) along with an iron pail.  The copper substitute pots soon became popular and were replicated throughout Europe and the middle-east for the next couple hundred or so years. The design used in the M.E.  is close but differences do exist and can be determined! 

The two in this display  (Ca. 1600) are similar in size to the two shown in the photocopies of Hogarth’s “Gin Lane” [below this page.] The woman is buying some “house made gin.” Hogarth drew these prints to show the bad things and dangers that were accused of being a product of this drink (GIN); such as child neglect, prostitution, public drunkenness, and disease.

 His corresponding print of “Beer Street” show everyone quite well, healthy, happy and well fed. Needless to say he didn’t get any Gin for Christmas!!

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BOHEMIAN -  Kupferkanne_messing_1  IN GERM. WANTED $500 PLUS SHIP  3 -13  I BOUGHT IT

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1 - Kupferkanne_messing_2

 

[13] TWO BOHEMIAN COPPER TANKARDS CIRCA MID TO LATE 1600

 

 

 

BOTH COME WITH THE TYPICAL:

[1] FLAT SIDED, FLAT TOPPED LID  (ONE WITH ENGRAVING ONE WITH COPPER FLOWER FORM ADDITION.)

[2] THE HANDLE IN THE FORM OF A QUESTION MARK (?) WITH FOLDED OVER HANDLE EDGES. [SEE THE TWO RUSSIAN COPPER CUPS WITH THE EDGES FOLDED UNDER THE HANDLE.]

[3] FLAT BASE WITH MULTI-LEVELS OF RIDGES.

 [4] A SEPARATELY MADE AND APPLIED FACETED RING AT THE TOP OF THE DRUM. ONE DONE IN BRASS. ONE DONE IN HAMMERED RELIEF  WITHIN THE COPPER BOD

[5] DISTICTLY ROUNDED ENDS OF THE HANDLE-TO-BODY ATTACHMENT, WITH ROUNDED OUTSIDE RIVETS ON THE HANDLE MOUNTS.  

   THE ALL COPPER ONE MISSING ITS THUMBLIFT.

 

 

 [14]

MASSIVE DUAL SPOUTED HAND POUNDED

COPPER WINE SERVER    ITALY – CIRCA 1600’S

 I AM NOT GOING TO CLEAN AND POLISH THIS ONE UP, AS I WISHTO USE IT IN FUTURE LECTURES AS A VERY GOOD EXAMPLE OF WHAT “PATINA” REALLY IS….. AND NOT WHAT THE NIT WIT SELLERS  (ON EBAY, ETSY, SITES ETC.) THINK AND SAY IT IS; WHICH IS GRIME AND DIRT!!

[15]

BRONZE WINE / SPIRITS JUG OR DECANTER  

(PROB.) HOLLAND (THE NETHERLANDS)

CIRCA 1300-1500’S

A  SOLIDLY MADE EIGHT  INCH TALL. BRONZE SPIRITS JUG / WINE DECANTER. THIS MUST HAVE BEEN MADE FOR AND USED IN A WEALTHY HOME  OR SAILING SHIP, AND PROBABLY SOMETIME BEFORE THE COMMONALITY OF GLASS DECANTERS BECAME REALLY POPULAR. THIS CAME WITH ITS ORIGINAL PATINA ~ TO SHINE OR NOT TO SHINE ? ~ AND IF SO HOW MUCH ?  THIS IS ALWAYS A WORTHWHILE DEBATE BETWEEN COLLECTORS!!

I DECIDED IT WOULD LOOK OUT OF PLACE NEXT TO  ALL THE OTHER SHINED EXAMPLES THAT I HAVE,  SO WITHIN ONE MONTH I HAD CLEANED IT UP.

 IT MUST HAVE LOOKED PRETTY DYNAMIC AND IMPRESSIVE SITTING ON A BRONZE TRAY ON A CARVED WOODEN SIDEBOARD WHEN BRAND NEW. (SEE THE BRIGHT BRONZE COLOR COME THROUGH ON ITS BOTTOM WHERE I POLISHED A BIT OF IT.) 

LATER IN LIFE IT MAY HAVE EVEN GRACED A BUFFET TABLE IN ONE OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY SHIPS. (EST. 1602)  FOR IF IT FELL IT WOULDN’T BREAK!! 

IT IS SHOWN ALONG WITH TWO DUTCH SILVER PIECES IN THE “FROM WHICH TO DRINK” COLLECTION. BOTH SHOW THE SAME TYPE OF CONCENTRIC CIRCLE-ON-CIRCLE APPROACH IN THE DÉCOR.  THESE SILVER ONES ARE BOTH FROM THE SAME MAKER AND FROM THE MID 1800’S. THIS DECANTER IS OF COURSE MUCH EARLIER!   

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 [15] SMALL BRASS AND COPPER BEER STEIN = ENRICHED WITH TIN; MOSTLY WORN OFF CIRCA LATE 1600’S – EARLY 1700’S

OTTOMAN EMPIRE [1453 TO 1918 / 1922] MUGS & STEINS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THOSE MADE IN OTHER AREAS OF THE WESTERN WORLD BY THEIR USE OF [1] A FLATENED HANDLE BOTTOM, CURVED WITH, AND ATTACHED TO THE BODY IN THE FORM OF A ? MARK. [2] THE BODY MOST OFTEN HAS SHINY TIN APPLIED ON THE OUTSIDE OF IT LOOKING LIKE IT WAS APPLIED AT RANDOM; SOMETIMES IN STREAKS. [3] THEIR CONSISTENT USE OF AN ATTACHED HANDLE RIVETED THROUGH A SMALL MOLDED PLINTH AND APPEARING TO LOOK CLOSE TO SMALL DRAGON FLY’S WINGS. THIS ONE’S IS DONE IN COPPER ALONG WITH ITS HINGE, BUT THE LID’S PLINTH IS HEAVY BRASS WITH COPPER FLATENED RIVETS. THE BOTTOM IS FLAT WITH SMALLBOTTOM SIDES  SOLDERED TO THE DRUM WHICJH SITS IN IT. THIS PIECE HAS BEEN HEAILY USED DURING ITS LIFETIME – REMEMBER – BACK THEN THERE WAS NO “IT’S OLD! THROW IT AWAY! ” OR “WE WISH TO LIVE IN PLASTICVILLE” MENTALITY!                        

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[16 PUT IN ??]   CHASED BRONZE WINE GOBLET  [?]   CIRCA 1400-1600 (EST.)

A 4 ½ INCH TALL HAND HELD BRONZE WINE GOBLET, MADE IN EASTERN EUROPE (GEORGIA. CASPIAN SEA – KALAKHSTAN – AREA.)  THIS  GOBLET /  CHALICE  HAS UNUSUAL DÉCOR OF HAND CHASED FLUTINGS,  AND A SMALL KNOP IN THE STEM; BOTTOM OF BOWL WITH A LATER STIPLED PERSONAL INSCRIPTION.